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Flora

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Plant species diversity
Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.

In botanyflora (plural: floras or florae) has two meanings: a flora (with a lower case 'f') refers to the plant life occurring in a particular region, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life, while a Flora (with a capital 'F') refers to a book or other work describing a flora and including aids for the identification of the plants it contains such as botanical keys and line drawings that illustrate the characters that distinguish the different plants. Floristics is the study of floras, including the preparation of Floras.

The term flora comes from Latin language Flora, the goddess of flowers inRoman mythology. The corresponding term for animal life is faunaFlora,fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to asbiota. Some classic and modern floras are listed below.

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[edit]Flora classifications

Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, special environment, or climate. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of an historic era as in fossil flora. Lastly, floras may be subdivided by special environments:

  • Native flora. The native and indigenous flora of an area.
  • Agricultural and garden flora. The plants that are deliberately grown by humans.
  • Weed flora. Traditionally this classification was applied to plants regarded as undesirable, and studied in efforts to control or eradicate them. Today the designation is less often used as a classification of plant life, since it includes three different types of plants: weedy speciesinvasive species (that may or may not be weedy), and native and introduced non-weedy species that are agriculturally undesirable. Many native plants previously considered weeds have been shown to be beneficial or even necessary to various ecosystems.

Bacterial organisms are sometimes included in a flora[1][2], and sometimes the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately.

[edit]Flora treatises

Floristic regions in Europe according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Plants
A fossil leaf from the extinctComptonia columbiana, 48.5 million years old. Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington, USA. Stonerose Interpretive Center.

Traditionally floras are books, but some are now published on CD-ROM orwebsites. The area that a flora covers can be either geographically or politically defined. Floras usually require some specialist botanical knowledge to use with any effectiveness.

It is said that the Flora Sinensis by the Polish Jesuit Michał Boym was the first book that used the name "Flora" in this meaning, a book covering the plant world of a region.[3] However, despite its title it covered not only plants, but also some animals of the region.

A flora often contains diagnostic keys. Often these are dichotomous keys, which require the user to repeatedly examine a plant, and decide which one of two alternatives given in the flora best applies to the plant.

A compendium of world floras has been compiled by David Frodin.[4]

[edit]Classic floras

Europe
India
Indonesia
China
Americas

[edit]Modern floras

[edit]Americas

Caribbean
  • Britton, N. L., and Percy Wilson. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Volume V, Part 1: Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Pandanales to ThymelealesNew York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1924.
Central & South America
North America

[edit]Asia

Taxus chinensis, Chinese Yew tree. Morton Arboretum
East Asia
Southeast Asia
Indian region and Sri Lanka
  • Flora of Bhutan
  • Flora of the Presidency of Madras by J.S. Gamble (1915–36)
  • Flora of Nepal
  • Bengal Plants by D. Prain (1903)
  • Flora of the upper Gangetic plains by J. F. Duthie (1903–29)
  • Botany of Bihar and Orissa by H.H. Haines (1921–25)
  • Flora of British India (1872–1897) by Sir J.D. Hooker
Middle East and western Asia
  • Flora of Turkey
  • Flora Iranica
  • Flora Palaestina:
    • M. Zohary (1966). Flora Palaestina part 1.
    • M. Zohary (1972). Flora Palaestina part 2.
    • N. Feinbrun (1978). Flora Palaestina part 3.
    • N. Feinbrun (1986). Flora Palaestina part 4.
    • A. Danin, (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area (Flora Palaestina part 5).
    • Online updates: http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en&action=showfile&fileid=14005

[edit]Australia

A closing venus fly trap.
  • Flora of Australia
  • Flora of New Zealand series:
    • Allan, H.H. 1961, reprinted 1982. Flora of New Zealand. Volume I: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01056-3.
    • Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970, reprinted 1976. Flora of New Zealand. Volume II: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Monocotyledons except Graminae.ISBN 0-477-01889-0.
    • Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. 1980. Flora of New Zealand Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous & Spathaceous Monocotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01041-5.
    • Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.;Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-02529-3.
    • Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000. Flora of New Zealand Volume V: Grasses. ISBN 0-478-09331-4.
    • Volumes I-V: First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcribed by A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres.
  • Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens. ISBN 0-477-01266-3.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1986. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume I. ISBN 0-477-02530-7.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1988. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume II. ISBN 0-477-01353-8.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A.;Racine, M.M. 1994. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume III. ISBN 0-477-01642-1.
  • Sykes, W.R.; West, C.J.; Beever, J.E.; Fife, A.J. 2000. Kermadec Islands Flora - Special EditionISBN 0-478-09339-X.

[edit]Pacific Islands

  • Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Warren L. Wagner and Derral R. Herbst (1991) + suppl. [1]
  • Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie
  • Flore de la Polynésie Française (J. Florence, vol. 1 & 2, 1997 & 2004)

[edit]Europe

British Isles

[edit]Africa and Madagascar

  • Flore du Gabon
  • Flore du Cameroun
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • Flora Capensis
  • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of South Africa
  • Flore du Rwanda
  • Flore de Madagascar et des Comores

[edit]Flora on Wikipedia

An aloe vera plant.
Blueberry plant with berries.

Wikipedia has the following mainly flora categories:

[edit]See also


[edit]References

  1. ^ http://webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=flora
  2. ^ http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm#F
  3. a b Flora Sinensis (access to the facsimile of the book, its French translation, and an article about it)
  4. ^ Frodin, David G. 2001. Guide to Standard Floras of the World. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.ISBN 9780521790772.

[edit]External links

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